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Incandescent light bulb

Wikipedia, (20130125)

“Early pre-commercial research

In 1802, Humphry Davy had what was then the most powerful electrical battery in the world at the Royal Institution of Great Britain. In that year, he created the first incandescent light by passing the current through a thin strip of platinum, chosen because the metal had an extremely high melting point. It was not bright enough nor did it last long enough to be practical, but it was the precedent behind the efforts of scores of experimenters over the next 75 years.[7] In 1809, Davy also created the first arc lamp with two carbon charcoal rods connected to a 2000-cell battery; it was demonstrated to the Royal Institution in 1810.

Over the first three-quarters of the 19th century many experimenters worked with various combinations of platinum or iridium wires, carbon rods, and evacuated or semi-evacuated enclosures. Many of these devices were demonstrated and some were patented.[8]

In 1835, James Bowman Lindsay demonstrated a constant electric light at a public meeting in Dundee, Scotland. He stated that he could "read a book at a distance of one and a half feet". However, having perfected the device to his own satisfaction, he turned to the problem of wireless telegraphy and did not develop the electric light any further. His claims are not well documented, although he is credited in Challoner et al.[9] with being the inventor of the "Incandescent Light Bulb".

In 1840, British scientist Warren de la Rue enclosed a coiled platinum filament in a vacuum tube and passed an electric current through it. The design was based on the concept that the high melting point of platinum would allow it to operate at high temperatures and that the evacuated chamber would contain fewer gas molecules to react with the platinum, improving its longevity. Although an efficient design, the cost of the platinum made it impractical for commercial use.

In 1841, Frederick de Moleyns of England was granted the first patent for an incandescent lamp, with a design using platinum wires contained within a vacuum bulb.[10]

In 1845, American John W. Starr[11] acquired a patent for his incandescent light bulb involving the use of carbon filaments.[12] He died shortly after obtaining the patent, and his invention was never produced commercially. Little else is known about him.[13]

In 1851, Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin publicly demonstrated incandescent light bulbs on his estate in Blois, France. His light bulbs are on display in the museum of the Château de Blois.[14]

In 1872, Russian Alexander Lodygin invented an incandescent light bulb and obtained a Russian patent in 1874. He used as a burner two carbon rods of diminished section in a glass receiver, hermetically sealed, and filled with nitrogen, electrically arranged so that the current could be passed to the second carbon when the first had been consumed.[15] Later he lived in the USA, changed his name to Alexander de Lodyguine and applied and obtained patents for incandescent lamps having chromium, iridium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium, molybdenum and tungsten filaments,[16] and a bulb using a molybdenum filament was demonstrated at the world fair of 1900 in Paris.[17]

Heinrich Göbel in 1893 claimed he had designed the first incandescent light bulb in 1854, with a thin carbonized bamboo filament of high resistance, platinum lead-in wires in an all-glass envelope, and a high vacuum. Judges of four courts raised doubts about the alleged Goebel anticipation, but there was never a decision in a final hearing due to the expiry date of Edison's patent. A research work published 2007 concluded that the story of the Goebel lamps in the 1850s is a legend.[18] On 24 July 1874, a Canadian patent was filed by Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans for a lamp consisting of carbon rods mounted in a nitrogen-filled glass cylinder. They were unsuccessful at commercializing their lamp, and sold rights to their patent (U.S. Patent 0,181,613) to Thomas Edison in 1879.[19][20]

Joseph Swan (1828–1914) was a British physicist and chemist. In 1850, he began working with carbonized paper filaments in an evacuated glass bulb. By 1860, he was able to demonstrate a working device but the lack of a good vacuum and an adequate supply of electricity resulted in a short lifetime for the bulb and an inefficient source of light. By the mid-1870s better pumps became available, and Swan returned to his experiments.

With the help of Charles Stearn, an expert on vacuum pumps, in 1878, Swan developed a method of processing that avoided the early bulb blackening. This received British Patent No 8 in 1880.[21] On 18 December 1878, a lamp using a slender carbon rod was shown at a meeting of the Newcastle Chemical Society, and Swan gave a working demonstration at their meeting on 17 January 1879. It was also shown to 700 who attended a meeting of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne on 3 February 1879. These lamps used a carbon rod from an arc lamp rather than a slender filament. Thus they had low resistance and required very large conductors to supply the necessary current, so they were not commercially practical, although they did furnish a demonstration of the possibilities of incandescent lighting with relatively high vacuum, a carbon conductor, and platinum lead-in wires. Besides requiring too much current for a central station electric system to be practical, they had a very short lifetime.[22] Swan turned his attention to producing a better carbon filament and the means of attaching its ends. He devised a method of treating cotton to produce 'parchmentised thread' and obtained British Patent 4933 in 1880.[21] From this year he began installing light bulbs in homes and landmarks in England. His house was the first in the world to be lit by a lightbulb and so the first house in the world to be lit by hydroelectric power. The home of Lord Armstrong at Cragside was also among the first houses to be lit by electricity. In the early 1880s he had started his company.[23] In 1881, the Savoy Theatre in the City of Westminster, London was lit by Swan incandescent lightbulbs, which was the first theatre, and the first public building in the world, to be lit entirely by electricity.[24]

Thomas Edison began serious research into developing a practical incandescent lamp in 1878. Edison filed his first patent application for "Improvement In Electric Lights" on 14 October 1878.[25] After many experiments with platinum and other metal filaments, Edison returned to a carbon filament. The first successful test was on 22 October 1879,[26][27] and lasted 13.5 hours. Edison continued to improve this design and by 4 November 1879, filed for a US patent for an electric lamp using "a carbon filament or strip coiled and connected ... to platina contact wires."[28] Although the patent described several ways of creating the carbon filament including using "cotton and linen thread, wood splints, papers coiled in various ways,"[28] Edison and his team later discovered that a carbonized bamboo filament could last over 1200 hours.[29]

Hiram S. Maxim started a lightbulb company in 1878 to exploit his patents and those of William Sawyer. His United States Electric Lighting Company was the second company, after Edison, to sell practical incandescent electric lamps. They made their first commercial installation of incandescent lamps at the Mercantile Safe Deposit Company in New York City in the fall of 1880, about six months after the Edison incandescent lamps had been installed on the steamer Columbia. In October 1880, Maxim patented a method of coating carbon filaments with hydrocarbons to extend their life. Lewis Latimer, his employee at the time, developed an improved method of heat-treating them which reduced breakage and allowed them to be molded into novel shapes, such as the characteristic "M" shape of Maxim filaments. On 17 January 1882, Latimer received a patent for the "Process of Manufacturing Carbons," an improved method for the production of light bulb filaments, which was purchased by the United States Electric Light Company. Latimer patented other improvements such as a better way of attaching filaments to their wire supports.[30]

In Britain, the Edison and Swan companies merged into the Edison and Swan United Electric Company (later known as Ediswan, that was ultimately incorporated into Thorn Lighting Ltd). Edison was initially against this combination, but after Swan sued him and won, Edison was eventually forced to cooperate, and the merger was made. Eventually, Edison acquired all of Swan's interest in the company. Swan sold his US patent rights to the Brush Electric Company in June 1882.”

Lámpara incandescente

Wikipedia, (20130125)

“El invento de la lámpara incandescente se le atribuye a Joseph Swan quien presentó el 21 de octubre de 1879 una lámpara práctica y viable, que lució durante 48 horas ininterrumpidas, sin embargo el invento había sido desarrollado primeramente por Humphry Davy y perfeccionado por Warren de la Rue. El 27 de enero de 1880 le fue concedida la patente, con el número 285.898. Otros inventores también habían desarrollado modelos que funcionaban en laboratorio, incluyendo a Henry Woodward, Mathew Evans, James Bowman Lindsay, William Sawyer y Humphry Davy.1

El alemán Heinrich Goebel ya había registrado su propia bombilla incandescente en 1855, mucho antes por tanto que Thomas Edison. Tiempo después, pero siempre antes que a Edison, el 11 de julio de 1874 se le concedió al ingeniero ruso Alexander Lodygin la patente nº 1619 para una bombilla incandescente. El inventor ruso utilizó un filamento de carbono.

La bombilla es uno de los inventos más utilizados por el hombre desde su creación hasta la fecha. Según una lista de la revista Life es la segunda más útil de las invenciones del siglo XIX.”

El primer avión propiamente dicho fue creado por Clément Ader, el 9 de octubre de 1890 consigue despegar y volar 50 m. con su Éole. en Armainvilliers, Francia

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre (20120105)

“El primer avión propiamente dicho fue creado por Clément Ader, el 9 de octubre de 1890 consigue despegar y volar 50 m. con su Éole. Posteriormente repite la hazaña con el Avión II que vuela 200 m en 1892 y el Avión III que en 1897 vuela una distancia de más de 300 m. El vuelo del Éole fue el primer vuelo autopropulsado de la historia de la humanidad, y es considerado como la fecha de inicio de la aviación en Europa

El brasileño Santos Dumont fue el primer hombre en despegar a bordo de un avión, impulsado por un motor aeronáutico; algunos países consideran a los hermanos Wright como los primeros en realizar esta hazaña, debido al despegue que realizaron el 17 de diciembre de 1903, despegue que duró 12 segundos y en el que recorrieron unos 36,5 metros. Sin embargo, Santos Dumont fue el primero en cumplir un circuito preestablecido, bajo la supervisión oficial de especialistas en la materia, periodistas y ciudadanos parisinos. El 23 de octubre de 1906, voló cerca de 60 metros a una altura de 2 a 3 metros del suelo con su 14-bis, en el campo de Bagatelle en París.

Santos Dumont fue realmente la primera persona en realizar un vuelo en una aeronave más pesada que el aire por medios propios, ya que el Kitty Hawk de los hermanos Wright necesitó de la catapulta hasta 1908. Realizado en París, Francia el 12 de noviembre de 1906, no solamente fue bien testimoniado por locales y por la prensa, sino también por varios aviadores y autoridades.”

Francisco Javier Balmis

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre 20111112
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